Big prospects for mushroom growing
"Razvitie" Corporation" JSC specialists prepared an analytical report which reflects the mushroom industry current situation and tendencies of its development.
The paper presents the main macroeconomic indicators of mushroom production in Russian Federation, mushrooms gross harvest and yield dynamics in Russia, in CFD and in Belgorod region, leading producers of mushrooms in Russia, the main target audience of Russian mushroom products market, cultivated mushrooms consumption in Russian Federation, comparison of mushrooms wholesale prices, the amount of import and export of mushrooms and fungal mycelium in Russian Federation in 2013-2016.
A separate block describes the state support measures provided by the federal and regional legal instruments that promote the mushroom production industry in Russian Federation after the adoption of the state program "The development of protected ground vegetable growing in Russian Federation for 2012-2020".
The report also contains information about the process and features of mushrooms production business organization in Russia, as well as the development and achievements of import substitution program in the country in 2016.
In general mushrooms production market analysis for 2015-2016 showed that the current mushroom industry state support measures in Russian Federation are signed in the framework of federal and regional programs to support small and medium-sized businesses as well as a number of sectoral agricultural programs in which mushroom growing is not considered as a separate branch of agriculture. Basically mushroom growing is mentioned in the context of sub-crop and vegetable production, falling under the legal regulation of these areas of agriculture.
According to experts the mushroom growing at the federal level must be legally classified as a branch of agriculture which is already included in the system of state support. In almost all regions of Russia there are greenhouse complexes. According to the specialists of the RF CCI the main obstacle to the development of mushroom production in Russia is the low involvement of small businesses in the agricultural sector. Experts believe that the promotion of farmers' investment in mushroom cultivation at the regional level can be low-cost enough to measure the state and help to develop sub-sectors will provide the conditions for investment by large industrial enterprises in the production of compost.
Mushrooms production in Russian however has a great growth prospects. This is evidenced by at least the fact that until 2015 mushroom cultivation in the country was poorly developed as imports was displacing domestic entrepreneurs making it impossible to compete freely. In the past few years the country has seen an increase in mushrooms production. So, if in 2012 the gross harvest amounted to nearly 5 000 tons of mushrooms, in 2015 it reached 8660.4 tonnes, that is in 1.73 times or 73% more.
According to the Federal State Statistics Service in 2015 mushroom production in agricultural organizations amounted to 79.8 thousand Cwt or 116.6% to the level of 2014 (68.4 thousand Cwt) and in peasant farms and individual entrepreneurs – 6.8 thousand Cwt or decreased by 16.8% compared to 2014.
The bulk of production in 2015 accounted for the Central Federal District - 3270.6 tonnes (37.8%), which this year is the leader in terms of mushrooms cultivation in Russia, Volga Federal District - 3245.3 tonnes (37.5%), taking the second place, closes the top three of the North-West Federal District, accounting - 1322.7 tonnes (15.3%). In the Southern Federal District amounted to gross collection of mushrooms - 581.1 tonnes (6.7%). Beyond the Urals champignon production almost not developed.
According to the Federal State Statistics Service in 2015 Belgorod region showed almost 21% reduction in picking mushrooms - to 29.7 tons, the same percentage decreased productivity - up to 16.6 kg / m2. It is almost seven times lower than the average in the Central Federal District and more than nine times lower than the maximum yield, marked in the Volga federal District.
This distribution by regions mostly applies to the fact that these Russian Federation constituent entities are the largest domestic producers of mushrooms.
To date, companies operating in the mushroom products market have the common task for the development of potential demand by creating a mushroom products consumption culture in Russia as at the moment the level of mushrooms consumption in Russia is one of the lowest in Europe.
Industrial cultivation of mushrooms in Russia is becoming more attractive: the demand greatly exceeds supply, and imported products from Poland and the EU are under embargo. Against this background Russians mushroom consumption is not falling.
But the total import in the "mushroom sector" must first find a replacement for compost and substrates. The main limiting factor of cultivated mushrooms domestic production development is the lack of composting due to which the already existing facilities are reducing and it may obstruct the emergence of new industries.
Today the production of substrates and composts for mushrooms industrial cultivation is attractive for investments itself. A number of enterprises have already organized the own compost production which significantly reduce the risk in comparison with the option of working with the purchased compost.